Study #2

Appendix A: University of Florida IRB forms

Appendix B: Example questions and Researcher's Biography

Some Examples Interview Questions:

1). Who was your mentor?

Where did you meet them? How old were you? Does this person still have any bearing          on the way you teach art or the way you act as a mentor to other artists?

2). How did you discover you wanted to teach art to adults?

What inspired you to teach art? What do you teach? Who do you teach? Where do            you teach art? How long have you taught art to adult?

3). Did you seek out any method/approach to teaching art to adults, what are they?

What are some benefits you see to creating art among your students? Are any of these       related to the approach you teach?

What are some struggles or barriers of your students have/had?

4). Is there an approach you use to encourage and engage the creative adult in your classroom?

What kind of feedback do you receive?                                                                           What kind of response are you looking for?

5.) Do you see any quality, therapeutic, enriching, physical, or psychological transformative          results from your adult students participating in your class?

6). What is your relationship/partnership with the community?

What is integral to your success as an art educator to adult in your community?  What are some of the student’s contributions to the community as a whole?


 Author Biography

            Joan Rebecca Hastings Crane is an American painter. Crane often creates images of brilliant color in the impressionist’s style on masonite board using acrylic paint. She was born in Largo, Florida but lived most of her adult life in Central North Carolina. She is a current resident of  St. Petersburg, Florida and lives with her youngest son. She creates her art work at her home studio daily.

            Her undergraduate degree is in studio art from St. Andrews College, Laurinburg, NC; Masters in Adult Education from Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI; Doctorate in Adult Education from National-Louis University, Chicago, IL; and will gain a her 2nd Masters in Art Education from University of Florida, Gainesville, FL in the Summer of 2015.

            Joan owns Suncoast Art Academy, LLC and is the senior art instructor for her company. The business was launched in January 2014. Since February 2014, Joan has been the painting art instructor at Michaels Arts and Crafts. Also, Joan is a guest teacher for Pinellas County Schools k-12 and sometimes Adult Ed.  She is a very active volunteer in her community, for example, she works at All Children’s hospital in the family resource library where they provide structured art projects to sick patients and their family. Joan also teaches art to disabled adults at Creative Clay. She is the den leader of the Webelos cub scouts in pack 301, and a volunteer at her church whenever they need her. Every summer she teaches Vacation Bible School in June for a week.





Study #1 The Underrepesentation of Women in Art History

Study # 1

Glossary of Terms

adult education Adult education is concerned not with preparing people for life, but rather with helping people to live more successfully. Thus if there is to be an overarching function of the adult education enterprise, it is to assist adults to increase competence, or negotiate transitions, in their social roles (worker, parent, retiree etc.), to help them gain greater fulfillment in their personal lives, and to assist them in solving personal and community problems. (Darkenwald and Merriam 1982: 9)

art appreciation Being able to look at works and form your own opinions.

authority The power or right to give orders, make decisions, and enforce obedience. The right to act in a specified way, delegated from one person or organization to another.

behavioral The actions or reactions in response to external or internal stimuli.

community Is defined as a group of interacting people living in a common location and/or characteristics, regardless of their location or degree of interaction.

critical reflection Questioning and analysing experiences, observations, theories, beliefs and/or assumptions.

critical theory A philosophical approach to culture, and esp. to literature, that seeks to confront the social, historical, and ideological forces and truth.

diversity A point or respect in which things differ in various forms.


egalitarianism The doctrine of the equality of mankind and the desirability of political and economic and social equality.

empowerment Refers to increasing the spiritual, political, social or economic strength of individuals and communities. It often involves the empowered developing confidence in their own capacities.

epistemology The study or a theory of the nature and grounds of knowledge especially with reference to its limits and validity.

ethnography The scientific description of the customs of peoples and cultures.

Eurocentric Focusing on European culture or history to the exclusion of a wider view of the world; implicitly regarding European culture as preeminent.

evaluation of new knowledge A Method to measure the impact of knowledge resources that effectively measures the impact of a knowledge source. The assessment can be other than a paper test of content knowledge but rather information gained through a qualitative content analysis.

feminism A collection of movements and ideologies aimed at defining, establishing, and defending equal political, economic, and social rights for women.

feminist pedagogy Is a set of epistemological assumptions, teaching strategies, approaches to content, classroom practices, and teacher-student relationships grounded in feminist theory.

feminist perspective examines the gender roles of inequality, marginalization, independence, and various forms of oppression of women.

hegemony Leadership or dominance, esp. by one country or social group.

hierarchy  A system or organization in which people or groups are ranked one above the other according to status or authority.

higher education An education beyond high school, esp. at a college or university.

humanistic Of or
 pertaining to a philosophy asserting human dignity and man's capacity for fulfillment through reason and scientific method and often rejecting religion.

individual voice Student voice is the individual and collective perspectives and actions of young people within the context of learning and education. This can include, but isn't limited to, active or passive participation, knowledge, voting, wisdom, activism, beliefs, service, opinions, leadership, and ideas.

inferior A person lower than another in status or ability.

leader A person followed by others. One who influences or has power.

lens Some ones vision.

liberal Favoring proposals for reform, open to new ideas for progress, and tolerant of the ideas and behavior of others; broad-minded.

participant One that participates, shares, or takes part in something.


patriarchy A system of society or government in which men hold the power and women are largely excluded from it.

pedagogy The method and practice of teaching, esp. as an academic subject or theoretical concept.

pejorative Expressing contempt or disapproval.

postmodern Of or relating to art, architecture, or literature that reacts against earlier modernist principles, as by reintroducing traditional or classical elements of style or by carrying modernist styles or practices to extremes.

progressive A person who actively favors or strives for progress toward better conditions, as in society or government.

radical Favoring or effecting fundamental or revolutionary changes in current practices, conditions, or institutions.

reflexivity Is an act of self-reference where examination or action “bends back on”, refers to, and affects the entity instigating the action or examination. In brief, reflexivity refers to circular relationships between cause and effect. A reflexive relationship is bidirectional; with both the cause and the effect affecting each another in a situation that renders both functions causes and effects. Reflexivity is related to the concept of feedback and positive feedback in particular.

reform To change for the better.


social actions Refer to any action that takes into account the actions and reactions of other individuals and is modified based on those events.

standpoint A position from which things are considered or judged; a point of view.

success The gaining of fame or prosperity.

tautology Needless repetition of the same sense in different words; redundancy.

traditional views Adhering to what is commonly accepted.



CEP Concept Engagement Project

EdD. Doctorate in Education

MA Masters Degree

NEA National Endowment for the Arts

NLU National-Louis University

NOW National Organization of Women

NWMA National Women’s Museum of Art


Art Terms

abstraction - Relying on color, pattern and form rather than realistic pr naturalistic portrayal of subject matter. Originating with recognizable form but amplified or distorted into a new entity.

Abstract Expressionism - The American art movement to gain prominence over European movements. NYC based dominant modernist form in the early 1940’s through 1950’s. Main figures, William De Kooning, Jackson Pollock, and Barnett Newman.

aesthetic - A personal response to what we consider beautiful, often based on cultural or educated experience

analogy - An inferred relationship between things that is otherwise unlike. Likeness may be drawn on structural, intellectual, or psychological levels.

anomaly - Something that is noticed because it differs from its environment.

art criticism - The process and result of critical thinking about art. It usually involves description, analysis, and interpretation of art, as well as some kind of judgment.

background - In a two-dimensional work that creates an illusion of three-dimensionality, the area that appears farthest from the observer; also called ground or field.

balance - The distribution of the visual weight of design elements.

bleed - The part of an image that extends beyond the edge of a page and is trimmed off.

blind contour - A contour drawing in which the artist’s eye focuses on the object being represented rather than on the image being created on the drawing surface.

chiaroscuro - Using contrasts of light and dark to create the illusion of three-dimensional form on a two-dimensional surface.

Classicism - Movements, periods, and impulses in Western art that prized qualities of harmony and formal restraint. Traditionally contrasted with Romanticism.

collage - Building image using glue to attach paper or other materials to build color and texture. Often used in combination with paint, Picasso was one of the first artists to use as a distinct medium.

composition - The way the parts are arranged

concept - An idea of general notion, as in the underlying meaning of a work of art.

conceptual art - Works in which the idea or concept is primary and more important than form.

Constructivism - Early 20th century Russian Constructivism emerged from Picasso and Braque’s experiments with Cubism. Influenced ways of thinking about art in relation to art and technology. Its rational approach influenced graphic design, minimalist sculpture and painting.

content - The message created by the artist. May be functional for consumer purposes; iconography.

contrast - The result of comparing one thing to another and seeing the difference.

cool colors - Colors whose relative visual temperature makes them seem more restrained in color temperature. Generally greens and blues.

crafts - Art works that are both decorative and functional. (Weaving, fabric design, jewelry-making, and pottery).

Cubism - An early 20th century art movement dominated by Picasso and Braque, distinguished by its experiments with analyzing forms into planes seen from many sides as once and by liberation of art from representational depictions. Flattened pictorial space, and figure-ground ambiguity.

culture - Behaviors, ideas, skills and customs of a group of people.

Dada - An anti-rational, anti-aesthetic, art movement begun in 1916. Marcel Duchamp, Jean Arp major figures. Although over seventy years old Dada reverberates through contemporary popular culture.

design - To choose and arrange elements in such a way that they satisfy an artistic and/or functional intention.

distortion - Changing an object’s usual shape to communicate ideas and feelings.

elements - The parts, or components, of a design.

emphasis- The main element or focal point; what the viewer’s eye should see first.

economy – In art making, using only what is needed to create an intended effect, eliminating any elements that might distract attention from the essence of an idea.

elements of design - The basic components of visual arts; line, shape, form, space, texture, lighting, color, and perhaps time.

Expressionism - The broad term that describes emotional art, most often boldly executed and making free use of distortion and arbitrary color. Artists dealing with inner feelings rather than outer reality. Art movements- German Expressionism, Abstract Expressionism. In music: Punk and improvised jazz.

Feminist Art - In opposition to the purity and exclusivity of Modernism, feminism called for an expansive approach to art. The feminist use of narrative, autobiography, decoration, ritual, craft-as-art, and popular culture helped catalyze the development of Postmodernism.

figure - In two-dimensional work, an image that appears to be somewhat closer to the viewer than the background against which it is presented.

fine arts - Disciplines involving the creation of artwork principally for aesthetic appreciation.

found object - Something extracted from its original context and used in creating a work of art.

functional design - Design that is utilitarian; necessary.

Futurism - A movement initiated in Italy in 1909 to sweep aside all artistic conventions and captured the qualities of modern industrialized life in a Cubist like construction.

golden section or mean - In ancient Greek aesthetic theory, an ideal proportional relationship between parts, whereby the smaller is to the greater to the whole. This ratio is approximately 5:8 or 1:1:6

harmony - Pleasing arrangement of elements of design in a work of art.

icon - Any image used to represent a person, place, thing or idea.

idealized - Referring to art in which representational images conform more closely to ideal aesthetic standards than to real life.

image - (1) A representation of an object, individual, or even. (2) In nonobjective art, a positive shape.

imaging - The production of mental images. Memory images are retrieved from past experiences; imaginary images are reconstruction's of past experiences rearranged by creative fantasy.

Impressionism - An art movement originating in late 19th century France centered on direct responses to light and color.

industrial design - The art of creating functional products that also have aesthetic appeal as well as utilitarian function.

intensity - The relative purity or grayness of a color. Saturation of color.

intent - What the designer or artist intended with the design; may not have a content or message

kinetic art - Three-dimensional art that moves.

line art - Black-and-White copy with no variations in value. Suitable for reproduction without halftone screen.

linear perspective - Technique of creating the illusion of depth on a flat surface. The lines of buildings and other objects converge to a vanishing point on a horizon line (viewer’s eye level)

linear shape - An elongated shape that reminds us of a line.

low contrast - Predominant use of medium values in a work

low relief - A three-dimensional work in which contours barely rises off a flat surface.

mass - Having volume or depth; takes up three-dimensional space.

matte- A dull finish surface

medium - The kind of material(s) one is working with, such as pigments, film, fabric, pencil, steel, and the like (plural-media).

metaphor - A figure of speech or visual presentation in which a work, phrase, or image is used in place of another to suggest a likeness between them, while in the process formulating a new concept for the imagination.

mixed-media - Combined use of several different techniques- such as drawing, painting, and computer generated imagery- in a single work.

Modernism - Arose as part of Western societies attempt to come to terms with the urban, industrial, and secular society that began to emerge in the mid-19th century. Modern artist have challenged middle-class values by depicting new, avant-garde subjects in dislocating new styles that seemed to change at a dizzying pace. Modern-art, especially abstract art, was thought to progress toward purity; refinement of the medium’s essential qualities of color and flatness: direct line of influence running from impressionism, to Post-Impressionism and on to Cubism, Constructivism, expressionism, Dada, Surrealism, Abstract Expressionism, Pop Art and Minimalism.

Naturalism - A style of art, which seeks to represent accurately, and faithfully the actual appearance of things.

Neo-Expressionism - A late 20th century movement, in which painting is used to express the artist feelings, projected as distorted images from the exterior world.

nonfigurative art - Without figures

nonobjective - Referring to art that does not represent a known object.

nonobjective art - Art that is not a representation of any particular object from the world of our experience.

nonrepresentational art - Art that does not depict real or natural things in any manner.

optical color mixture - A color-mixture sensation created in the viewer’s perception by use of juxtaposition of small areas of different hues

original - A primary, inventive form to producing an idea, method, performance, etc.

organic form - Shapes or forms that are free flowing and non-geometric.

overlapping - Obscuring of part of an image by another one that seems to lie between it and the viewer.

palette - (1) The surface on which paints are mixed. (2) The range of colors used in a particular work or by a particular artist.

pattern - A coherent visual structure, usually created by repetition or similar design elements.

perception - The individual response to the sensations of stimuli, often cultural

photorealism - A style of art that mimics life as the camera sees it.

pigment - A substance that reflects approximately the same color as the band of the same name in a spectrum of refracted light.

placement- Location, situation, or juxtaposition of elements.

Political Art - Art works with overtly political subject made to express critics of the status quo. Artists include Rudolf Baranik, Sue Coe, Leon Golub, Hans Haacke, Martha Rosier, and Guerrilla Girls.

point of view - (1) the place where the viewer appears to be in relationship to images depicted in a composition. (2) In linear-perspective drawing, the point from which the artist is looking.

pointillism - (1) Use of the small dots of carrying colors in painting to create optical color mixtures. (2) A 19th century French school of painting that used this technique.

Pop Art - A movement beginning in the late 1950’s that uses objects and images from the commercial culture.

Popular Culture - Made up of a multitude of forms of cultural communication- illustrated newspapers, movies, jazz, rock, pop music, radio, cabaret, advertising, comics, cheap novels, television, internet- it is a distinctly modern phenomenon born in Western Europe in late 19th century, Currently a worldwide in scope.

Post-Impressionism - Transcendence of the perceived limitations of Impressionism by such artists as Gaugin, Van Gogh, and Cezanne.

Post-Modernism - One distinctly new aspect of Post Modernism is the dissolution of traditional categories. The divisions between art, popular culture and the media have been eroded by many artists. Questions Modernism’s unyielding optimism idealism. Appropriation artist challenged the cherished modern notion of Avant-Garde originality by borrowing images from the media or art history and re-presenting them in new juxtapositions that paradoxically function as art.

primary colors - The basic pigment colors of light—red, blue, and blue—from which all other colors can be made are called “additive” primaries because when added together they produce white.

principles - Ways the pats or elements are used, arranged, or manipulated to create the composition of the design; how to use the parts.

print - (1) To reproduce the raised surfaces features of an object by inking them and applying the object to another surface. (2) The image created by this process

read - With reference to the visual arts, to look at and assign meaning to a visual image.

representational - Descriptive of art that depicts objects from the world of our experiences.

reproduction - Copy of a work of art.

Romanticism - The tendency to emphasize emotion and imagination rather than logic. Occurring many times in Western art.

scale - The proportion between two sets of dimensions.

secondary colors - Color produced by mixing two primaries.

semi abstract - Type of art in which objects in a work may be partially identifiable as elements of the natural world.

space - Space can be the area around, within or between images or elements. Space can be created on a two-dimensional surface by using such techniques as overlapping, object size, placement, color intensity and value, detail and diagonal lines.

style - Style is the artist’s ways of presenting things. Se of materials, methods of working, design qualities, choice of subject matter, etc. reflect the style of the individual, culture or time period.

subject - A topic or idea represented in an artwork.

surreal - Like pictures from a dream or the unconscious mind

symbol - Visual image that represents something else.

tertiary colors - (intermediate colors) - Colors produced by mixing a primary and a secondary color.

texture - The quality of being tactile, or being able to feel a rough or smooth type of surface.theory - The examination of information that often ends in a plausible assumption or conclusion.

three-dimensional - Having length, width, and depth in space.

two-dimensional art - A shape that has height and width but no true depth.

value - The range of possible lightness or darkness within a given medium

variety - The changing of the original character of any element diversity

visualization - The forming of a mental image or images, particularly visual images either of objects real and present or of things imagined.

volume - Space enclosed by and defined by mass

warm colors - Colors whose relative visual temperature makes them seem warm.

working space - The space that reflects the actual space. The two may, but not always, be the same space. This is the space we use to solve our design problem.


Write a new comment: (Click here)
Characters left: 160
DONE Sending...
See all comments

| Reply

Latest comments

31.10 | 18:33

Great job from Yolanda AND Norma

18.10 | 03:33

The purpose of art is not simply to be shocking. Any homeless streetperson can do that. The purpose of art must be higher and remain higher than the gutter.

11.10 | 12:45

ive didn't read all the articles but what I read are very affective

20.09 | 14:39

There is clearly a need for Women's movement.

You liked this page
Make your own website like I did.
It's easy, and absolutely free.